HOW TO INTEGRATE THE FAVELAS OF RIO DE JANEIRO IN THE FORMAL CITY?
AUTHORITIES’RESPONSES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES ON THE LIFE CONDITIONS OF ITS HABITANTS
CASE STUDY: THE FAVELA OF CANTAGALO
Soumia El Ghazouani
Guy Chemla and Mauro Kleiman
The urban landscape of the city of Rio de Janeiro is a reflection of a Brazilian society deeply unequal in a social and spatial point of view. A century of lack of governmental concern led to the multiplication and consolidation of the favelas in the carioca city. Given to the failure of the favela’s policy of eradication and the relocation of its habitants in isolated and poor quality collective buildings during the military dictatorship, the authorities are working on favela´s urbanization and legalization. Since the 80’s, various programs have emerged as well: PROFACE and « Every family a lot » (1982-1987), « Favela Neighborhood » (1994-2010), the « Program of Accelerated Growth » (since 2007), the « Program of Pacification « (since 2009), and «Living Carioca» (since 2010), according to different administrative levels: the municipality, the federal state and the nation. These efforts have been intensified due to the holding of the Football World Cup (2014) and Olympic Games (2016) in Rio de Janeiro. Through an empirical investigation in the favela of Cantagalo, we observed that these actions improved living conditions of people in the favela, but because of a lack of ambition of authorities and insufficient means, the favela is still not fully integrated in the formal city. The pacification, led by the state of Rio, had the most impact on the favela: it is the source of major advances of the formal sphere, an economic boom and a real estate speculation. These phenomena are accentuated in the favelas located in rich neighborhoods like Cantagalo. Public policies gave birth to « Favelas Chic » in the noble area of Rio de Janeiro, « Favelas Popular Neighborhoods » and “Precarious Neighborhoods with Collective Buildings” in the suburb.
Key words: favela, informal settlement, urbanization of informal settlements, land regularization, pacification, slums, Rio de Janeiro, Favela Bairro, Morar Carioca, PAC, Cantagalo.